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Doaksville is a former settlement, now a ghost town, located in present-day Choctaw County, Oklahoma. It was founded between 1824 and 1831, by people of the Choctaw Indian tribe who were forced to leave their homes in the Southeastern United States and relocate in an area designated in for their resettlement in Indian Territory. The community was named for Joseph Doak, co-owner of the local trading post. The town flourished until the U.S. Army abandoned nearby Fort Towson in 1854, though it remained as the Choctaw capital until 1859, then declined precipitately after being bypassed by a new railroad in 1870. It is now a ghost town and an archaeological preservation site.
Accessibility to steamboat traffic on the Red River made Doaksville a principal town of the Choctaw Nation in the Indian Territory. In the 1820s and 30s, it was a major destination for Choctaws who were required to move from their homes in the Southeast and move to Indian Territory. Josiah and his brother originally established the post at the mouth of the Kiamichi River, then relocated one mile west of the Fort Towson-Doaksville Cemetery, after the U.S. Army established Fort Towson in 1824. The community began significant growth in 1831, when the Army reactivated Fort Towson nearby, across the creek to the east.
The Oklahoma Historical Society acquired the Doaksville site in 1960 and sponsored archaeological digs during the 1990s. It maintains an archeological preservative site at Doaksville. A walkway and explanatory signs were put in place during 2001, so that visitors can view the foundations of several structures and many artifacts that were discovered during digs in 1995, 1996 and 1997. A site known as the Doaksville Site (NRID = 75001561) in the town of Fort Towson, Oklahoma was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 29, 1975.
By 1850, it was the largest town in Indian Territory. It then had more than thirty buildings[a] There were two newspapers, at least one of which, the Choctaw Intelligencer, was printed in the Choctaw language. In 1855, the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations formally separated. Doaksville served as the capital of the Choctaw Nation between 1860 and 1863. An 1860 convention in Doaksville ratified the Doaksville Constitution that guided the Choctaw Nation until 1906. The capital moved to Mayhew Mission in 1859, then to Chahta Tamaha in 1863., The Oklahoma Historical Society claims that Doaksville began to decline in importance in 1854, when the U.S. Army abandoned Fort Towson.