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Adobe Walls is a ghost town in Hutchinson County, 17 miles (27 km) northeast of Stinnett, in the U.S. state of Texas. It was established in 1843 as a trading post for buffalo hunters and local Indian trade in the vicinity of the Canadian River. It later became a ranching community. Historically, Adobe Walls is the site of two decisive battles between Native Americans and Anglo forces. In November 1864 First Battle of Adobe Walls, Native Americans successfully repelled attacking troops led by Kit Carson. Ten years later, on June 27, 1874, known as the Second Battle of Adobe Walls, civilians at the Adobe Walls trading post successfully fought off an attack by a war party of mainly Comanche and Cheyenne warriors led by the Comanche chief, Quanah Parker. The second battle led to a military campaign which resulted in the relocation of Native Americans to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. On May 22, 1978, the Adobe Walls site was added to the National Register of Historic Places in Texas, and in 1979 recognized as a Texas state archeological landmark.
In 1843, the trading firm of Bent, St. Vrain & Company established a log structure trading site on what is now known as Bent Creek in Hutchinson County. In 1845, they replaced the log structure with an adobe brick 80 square feet (7.4 m2) single-entrance fort, with walls that rose 9 metres (30 ft). The fort was closed in 1848, due to Indian depredations. In 1849, William Bent found part of his livestock slaughtered by local Indians. He blew up the remains of the fort and departed the panhandle of Texas. By the time of the renowned battles, the adobe structure was permanently abandoned, leaving only the crumbling adobe walls. In 1874, a new complex was erected north of the ruins by traders from Kansas.
Dixon was appointed the first postmaster when Adobe Walls received its post office on August 3, 1887. Dixon ran the post office out of his home, where he and business partner S.G. Carter also had a store. Dixon served as postmaster until 1901, at which time Otto Anderson was appointed postmaster. The post office was in operation until 1921, when it was closed and mail service moved to Plemons. Adobe Walls was a polling site, and voting there in the 19th Century was a multi-day community event that included barbecue and accompaniments. Today, Adobe Walls is a ghost town. In 1923 the Panhandle-Plains Historical Society became owners of the remains of the 1874 trading post, and conducted archeological excavations in the 1970s
Dixon described the 1874 establishment, “All the buildings at Adobe Walls faced to the east, the main ones standing in a row. On the south was the store of Rath & Wright, with a great pile of buffalo hides at the rear. Then came Hanrahan’s saloon, and fifty yards or so north of the latter was the store of Leonard & Myers, the building forming the northeast corner of the big picket stockade. In the southwest corner of the stockade was a mess house and the store as well. The blacksmith’s shop was located just north of Hanrahan’s saloon. The adobe walls of the main buildings were about two feet thick.”